A root canal treatment generally involves the removal and replacement of a tooth’s pulp. The pulp is soft tissue containing blood vessels, nerves and connective tissue. If pulp becomes damaged through injury or disease and cannot repair itself, bacteria and their products can leak into the pulp and cause the pulp to die. If a root canal procedure is not performed, an abscess can form at the tip of the root and cause considerable pain. Even if there is no pain, the bone anchoring the tooth in the jaw can be damaged. Without treatment, the tooth may have to be extracted. Tooth extraction is the only alternative. The extracted tooth will have to be replaced by a denture or a bridge. Otherwise the neighboring teeth will move into the space, creating problems with eating and cleaning. These problems can give rise to gum disease and new cavities. After that the hollow pulp chamber and root canals are cleaned, filled and sealed.